The principle fuel used as a petrol substitute for road transport vehicles is bioethanol. Bioethanol fuel is mainly produced by the starch/sugar fermentation process.
The main source of starch/sugar required to produce ethanol comes from fuel or energy crops. These crops are grown specifically for energy use and include maize and wheat crops.
Ethanol or ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is a clear colourless liquid. It is biodegradable, low in toxicity and causes little environmental pollution. Ethanol burns to produce carbon dioxide and water. Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol. By blending ethanol with gasoline we can also oxygenate the fuel mixture so it burns more completely and reduces polluting emissions. The most common blend is 5% or 10% ethanol and 80% or 90% petrol respectively (E5 or E10). Vehicle engines require no modifications to run on E 5 and E10 and vehicle warranties are unaffected also. Only flexible fuel vehicles can run on up to 85% ethanol and 15% petrol blends (E85).
Castlereagh International sells bioethanol produced by plants in North Ossetia, Russian Federation, and is the international trade representative for this Federal Region.